Average Cost of College & Tuition

Report Highlights. The average cost of college* in the United States is $35,331 per student per year, including books, supplies, and daily living expenses.

  • The average cost of college has more-than doubled in the 21st century, with an annual growth rate of 6.8%.
  • The average in-state student attending a public 4-year institution spends $25,487 for one academic year.
  • The average cost of in-state tuition alone is $9,349; out-of-state tuition averages $27,023.
  • The average traditional private university student spends a total of $53,217 per academic year, $35,807 of it on tuition and fees.
  • Considering student loan interest and loss of income, the ultimate cost of a bachelor’s degree can exceed $400,000.

*In this context, college refers to any 4-year postsecondary institution that offers an undergraduate degree program; this is the average cost to first-time, full-time undergraduates.

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Annual Cost of College
Public Institutions Cost of Tuition Additional Expenses** Cost of Attendance
4-Year In-State $9,349 $16,138 $25,487
4-Year Out-of-State $27,023 $16,138 $43,161
2-Year In-State $3,377 $12,371 $15,748
Private Institutions Cost of Tuition Additional Expenses Cost of Attendance
4-Year Nonprofit $35,807 $17,410 $53,217
4-Year For-profit $14,957 $20,168 $35,125
2-Year Nonprofit $16,898 $17,121 $34,019
2-Year For-profit $15,333 $17,046 $32,379

**Additional expenses do not account for potential lost income nor student loan interest.

Related reports include Student Loan Debt Statistics | Average Cost of Community College | How Do People Pay for College? | Student Loan Refinancing

Average Total Cost of College

The cost of attendance (COA) refers to the total cost of tuition and fees, books and supplies, as well as room and board for those students living on campus. COA does not include transportation costs, daily living expenses, student loan interest, etc.

  • The average cost of attendance for a student living on campus at a public 4-year in-state institution is $25,487 per year or $101,948 over 4 years.
  • Out-of-state students pay $43,161 per year or $172,644 over 4 years; traditional private univeristy students pay $53,217 per year or $212,868 over 4 years.
  • While 4 years is the traditional period to earn a bachelor’s degree, just 39% of students graduate within 4 years.
  • 60% of bachelor’s degree earners graduate within 6 years, totaling an average of $152,922 for the cost of attendance.
  • Students unable to work full-time stand to lose $40,612 in yearly income.
  • Student borrowers pay an average of $1,898 in interest each year, and the average student borrower spends roughly 20 years paying off their loans.
  • Considering lost income and loan interest, the ultimate price of the average bachelor’s degree may be as high as $400,000.
Total Cost of a Degree
Public Institutions Total Cost of Tuition Total Additional Expenses Total Cost of Degree
4-Year In-State $37,396 $64,552 $101,948
4-Year Out-of-State $108,092 $64,552 $172,644
2-Year In-State $6,754 $24,742 $31,496
Private Institutions Total Cost of Tuition Total Additional Expenses Total Cost of Degree
4-Year Nonprofit $143,228 $69,640 $212,868
4-Year For-profit $59,828 $80,672 $140,500
2-Year Nonprofit $33,796 $34,242 $68,038
2-Year For-profit $30,666 $34,092 $64,758

Line Graph: Historical Cost of Tuition and Fees, selected years from 1963 to 2020

Average Cost of Tuition

Tuition and fees make up the bulk of most college students’ educational expenses.

  • The average cost of attendance at any 4-year institution is $35,331.
  • The average cost of tuition at any 4-year institution is $28,775.
    • At public 4-year institutions, the average in-state tuition and required fees total $9,349 per year; out-of-state tuition and fees average $27,023.
    • Among private 4-year institutions, the average tuition and fees at a nonprofit college total $35,807 annually; at for-profit institutions, tuition and fees average $14,957 annually.
  • The average cost of tuition and fees at any 2-year institution is $3,621.
    • At public 2-year institutions, or community colleges, in-district tuition and fees average $3,377 annually; out-of-state students pay an average of $8,126.
    • At private 2-year institutions, students pay $16,898 in annual tuition and fees to attend nonprofit schools; for-profit colleges charge $15,333.
  • Among the comparatively few institutions that offer programs of less than 2 years, the average annual tuition and fees are $12,735.
  • Most institutions designated less-than-2-year are private, for-profit schools.
  • There are not enough data available regarding these institutions to derive much statistical meaning.

Line Graph: Historical Costs of Tuition & Fees, Room & Board

Historical Average Cost of Tuition

The cost of tuition has increased significantly over the last 40 years even after adjusting for inflation.

  • In 1963, the annual cost of tuition at a 4-year public college was $243, which is $2,207 when adjusted for inflation.
  • Adjusting for inflation, the cost of tuition has increased by $7,142 or 324%.
  • Between 2009-10 and 2019-20, before adjusting for inflation, the average tuition increase at 2-year colleges was $698 or 23.9%.
  • During the same period, the average tuition increased 39.2% or by $2,632 at public 4-year institutions and 47.2% or $10,500 at private 4-year institutions.
  • From 1989 to 2016, college costs increased almost 8 times faster than wages.
  • In 1963, the cost of a 4-year-degree was $5,144.
  • In 1989, the same degree cost $52,892.
  • As of the 2019-20 academic year, $101,584 is the price of a bachelor’s degree.

Stacked Bar Graph: Distribution of College Costs at 4-Year Institutions

Average Cost of Books & Supplies

Some programs require more expensive materials than others, so the cost of books and supplies varies widely.

  • At public 4-year institutions, students pay an average of $1,291 annually on books and supplies.
  • Books and supplies at private, non-profit institutions average $1,255; at private, for-profit institutions, the average cost is $1,103.
  • At public 2-year institutions, students pay an average of $1,538 each year for books and supplies.
  • At private, nonprofit institutions, books and supplies average $1,061; at private, for-profit 2-year colleges, the average cost is $1,415.

Average Cost of Room & Board

The determining factor in the cost of room and board is whether the student lives on or off campus.

  • At 4-year institutions, the cost of room and board ranges from $9,395 to $12,540.
    • At public 4-year institutions, students living on campus pay an average of $11,303 annually for room and board; off-campus boarders pay $10,631.
    • At private, nonprofit institutions, on-campus boarders pay an average of $12,540 per academic year; students living off campus pay $9,943.
    • At private, for-profit institutions, on-campus room and board averages $10,188; students living off campus pay an average of $9,395.
  • There is wider variation in room and board costs at 2-year institutions, with costs ranging from $7,008 to $12,30.
    • At public 2-year institutions, students living on campus pay an average of $7,008 for their annual room and board; students living off campus pay $9,276.
    • At private, nonprofit 2-year colleges, on-campus boarders pay $11,825 annually; off-campus boarders pay $9,692.
    • Private, for-profit institutions charge $12,730 on average for room and board; students living off campus pay $8,899.
Most Expensive 4-Year Private Nonprofit Universities
Institution Location Tuition
Columbia University in the City of New York New York, NY $61,788
University of Chicago Chicago, IL $60,552
Jewish Theological Seminary of America New York, NY $59,112
Landmark College Putney, VT $59,100
Trinity College Hartford, CT $59,050
Franklin and Marshall College Lancaster, PA $58,800
Vassar College Poughkeepsie, NY $58,770
Harvey Mudd College Claremont, CA $58,660
Amherst College Amherst, MA $58,640
Tufts University Medford, MA $58,578

Average Additional Expenses

Necessary living expenses, such as transportation, personal care, and entertainment, may be included in the final total cost of college attendance. These expenses vary according to the local economy as well as the student’s housing status.

  • Additional expenses at 4-year institutions range from $2,733 to $6,022.
    • Students living on campus at a public 4-year institution pay an average of $3,468 in additional annual expenses.
    • Students who live off campus may expect to pay $4,213 if they do not live with family; for students living with family, additional expenses average $4,204.
    • At private, nonprofit 4-year institutions, students living on campus spend an average of $2,733 on additional expenses.
    • Students living off campus alone or with nonfamily members spend $6,022 on additional living expenses; those living off campus with family spend $4,220.
    • At private, for-profit institutions, additional expenses average $4,749 for students living on campus.
    • Students who live off campus spend an average of $4,431; those who live off campus with family spend $4,558.
  • At 2-year institutions, additional expenses average between $2,498 and $5,150.
    • Students living on campus at a public 2-year institution pay an average of $3,390 in additional annual expenses.
    • Students living off campus pay $4,237 in additional expenses; students living off campus with family have an average of $4,258 in annual expenses.
    • Students living on campus at 2-year private, nonprofit institutions pay an average of $2,501 in additional annual expenses.
    • Students living off campus alone or with nonfamily members spend $4,753, while students living off campus with family members spend $4,767.
    • Students at private, for-profit 2-year institutions spend an average of $2,498 on additional expenses if they live on campus.
    • Students living off campus spend $5,150 if they do not live with family members; students who live off campus with family spend an average of $4,273.
Most Affordable 4-Year Private Nonprofit Universities
Institution Location Tuition
Curtis Institute of Music Philadelphia, PA $2,900
Grace Mission Uninversity Fullerton, CA $3,120
Bringham Young University-Idaho Rexburg, ID $4,208
Universidad Pentecostal Mizpa, Rio Piedras, PR $4,220
United Tribes Technical College Bismarck, ND $4,252
Universidad Teologica del Caribe Trujillo Alto, PR $4,524
Huntsville Bible College Huntsville, AL $4,560
Shiloh University Kalona, IA $5,250
Carolina College of Biblical Studies Fayetteville, NC $5,300
Reformed University Lawrenceville, GA $5,360

Average Cost of Lost Income

One of the largest expenses for students enrolled in college may be the loss of potential income in time spent studying instead of working.

  • The average weekly income for a high school graduate is $781, or $40,612 per year.
  • In four years, the average worker with a high school diploma earns $162,448.
  • The unemployment rate among high school graduates is 9.0%, which is 26.8% higher than the national average rate.
  • 17% of college students have been homeless within the last 12 months.
  • 56% of students experience housing insecurity each year.
  • Military veteran students are 61% more likely to experience housing insecurity and 23% more likely to experience homelessness.
  • 45% of students experience frequent food insecurity.
  • Over 50% of students from 2-year institutions and 44% of 4-year students worry about running out of food.
  • Nearly 50% of students cannot afford balanced meals.

Food insecurity 2 year vs 4 year students on Education Data Initiative

Average Cost of Borrowing for College

Most students borrow money to attend college, later repaying the principal plus interest. All of this compounds the longer the student is in school.

  • The average student loan debt is $37,584.
  • Each year, 34% of students borrow money to pay for college.
  • The average student borrows more than $30,000 to attend school.

See our reports on Student Loan Debt and How to Pay for College to learn more. U.S. Map, Average Tuition at Public Universities

Average College Costs by State

The average cost of in-state tuition and fees varies state-to-state and year-to-year. The range of difference is over $12,600.

  • The most expensive public schools are in the Northeast, in and around what is traditionally called New England.
  • Many of the most expensive private schools are also in this region.
  • The average tuition among the 10 most expensive states for public university is $14,583.
  • The least expensive schools are in the South and Plains regions; the least expensive private schools are also predominantly in the South.
  • The average tuition among the states with the most reasonably priced public universities is $6,392.

For more information, see our report on the Average Cost of College by State.

Most to Least Expensive In-State Public University Costs
State Tuition & Fees Total
Vermont $17,083 $29,665
New Hampshire $16,679 $28,734
New Jersey $14,360 $28,372
Massachusetts $13,729 $27,618
Connecticut $13,886 $27,564
Pennsylvania $15,565 $27,403
Illinois $14,455 $25,806
Rhode Island $13,105 $25,592
Virginia $13,655 $25,074
Delaware $11,091 $24,358
Michigan $13,315 $24,086
Arizona $11,072 $24,016
New York $8,467 $23,875
Oregon $10,813 $23,582
California $8,192 $23,037
South Carolina $12,497 $22,790
Maryland $9,714 $22,504
Ohio $9,902 $22,388
Colorado $9,144 $22,185
Hawaii $10,109 $21,854
Kentucky $10,888 $21,799
Minnesota $11,748 $21,611
National Average $9,349 $21,035
Alabama $10,323 $20,497
Maine $10,103 $20,458
Tennessee $10,164 $20,360
Indiana $9,268 $19,985
Washington $7,168 $19,846
Iowa $9,373 $19,809
Alaska $8,297 $19,619
Nebraska $8,582 $19,520
Louisiana $9,571 $19,498
Kansas $9,088 $19,101
Mississippi $8,604 $19,080
West Virginia $8,195 $19,034
Missouri $8,992 $18,734
Texas $8,598 $18,711
Georgia $7,457 $18,554
Arkansas $8,689 $18,223
Nevada $6,023 $17,987
Wisconsin $8,764 $17,784
North Carolina $7,228 $17,569
North Dakota $8,628 $17,449
South Dakota $8,978 $17,298
Oklahoma $8,009 $16,960
Montana $6,967 $16,732
Idaho $7,518 $16,338
New Mexico $7,152 $16,193
Florida $4,463 $15,237
Wyoming $4,747 $14,901
Utah $6,700 $14,619
District of Columbia $6,020 Unavailable

Analysis: Room and Board On and Off Campus

Living expenses are the second-largest cost of college after tuition and fees. Whether it is less expensive to live on or off campus depends on local rental markets. At Stanford University – located at the center of the San Francisco and San José urban sprawl – students would pay over $24,350 for a shared, off-campus apartment; room and board on campus, however, would cost $19,796 for an academic year. Nearly 60 percent of colleges do not accurately represent off-campus living costs. The University of California-Berkeley estimated a student would pay a median price of $14,360 per academic year (approx. 8 months) to live off-campus. In fact, it would cost a student $15,176 with a roommate in a two-bedroom apartment, adding $816 to their annual budget.

  • 87% of students live off-campus.
  • Room and board charges have doubled at four-year colleges even after adjusting for inflation.
  • In 1980, the average cost of room and board (adjusted for inflation) was $4,800 compared to $9,798 in 2014.
  • Between 2003 and 2014, increases for room charges at 4-year colleges outpaced the growth of rent prices.
  • In 2003 the average college room charge was 29% under median rent.
  • In 2014, the average college room charge was only 7% under median rent.

Cost of College to Taxpayers

Most public institutions receive funding from state and local governments. Colleges also receive federal funding through financial aid to students.

  • In 2017, local and state governments spent approximately 10% or $297 billion on higher education compared to 1977, when these expenditures were closer to $105 billion (after adjusting for inflation).
  • 98% of state funding for higher education funding and 78% of federal higher education funding went to public institutions.
  • For most states, this was the third-largest expenditure, behind elementary/secondary education and public welfare.
  • 88% of this spending went towards operational costs, and 12% went towards capital outlays (construction and maintenance).
  • In 2017, 85% of higher education spending occurred at the state level.
  • The number of FTE (full-time equivalent) students increased by 45% from 2000 to 2012.
  • Revenue per FTE student from federal sources increased by 32% compared to a decline in state revenue of 37%.
  • Total federal revenue increased from $43 billion to $83 billion (adjusted for inflation).
  • Federal loans increased by 375% between 1990 and 2013 compared to 60% enrollment growth.
  • As many as 50% of students at 2-year institutions received enough financial aid and grant money to cover tuition and fees.
  • Full-time students enrolled at 2-year institutions receive an average of $4,050 in financial aid and grant money.

Percentage of expenditures spent on instruction in 2017 on Education Data Initiative

Analysis: College Cost Variations

The significant difference between in-state tuition and out-of-state tuition at a public college or university is due to regional and state reciprocity agreements. These stipulate requirements for discounted or in-state tuition rates within the regions.

  • The Southern Regional Education Board’s Academic Common Market allows residents of 15 member states in-state tuition at any of the participating colleges in any of the other member states—provided the out-of-state school offers a degree program the student could not get in their home state.
  • In New England, the Regional Student Program includes Vermont, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Like the Academic Common Market, the school must offer a degree program not available in the student’s home state.
  • Other states offer a reduction of the out-of-state tuition for bordering or regional states, although students are still paying a higher rate than in-state tuition. These include the Midwest Student Exchange Program and the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program. These programs don’t typically require students to pursue a degree that’s not offered in their home state.
  • Active-duty servicemembers and members of their families may qualify to receive in-state tuition, regardless of whether they are permanent residents of the state they are currently stationed in.
  • Eighteen states offer in-state tuition for undocumented students, along with other scholarships and financial aid options.
  • Three states (Arizona, Georgia, and Indiana) have laws that prohibit colleges in their state from offering in-state tuition to undocumented students.
  • Neither Alabama nor Georgia allows undocumented students to enroll in college at all.

Note: North Dakota participates in both the Midwest Student Exchange AND the Western Undergraduate Exchange. States with reciprocity programs on Education Data Initiative

Even with financial aid, 70% of universities are unaffordable for most working-class and middle-class students.

Analysis: Why is College So Expensive?

Some of the biggest contributors to the increasing costs of attending college include increased demand, increased availability of financial aid, and more amenities designed to attract higher-paying students.

  • In 2017, there were 5.1 million more students attending college than there were in 2000.
  • Increased availability of financial aid for students represents increased funding from federal sources for institutions.
  • For-profit schools charge 75% more in tuition when students are eligible for federal loans.
  • Students increasingly attend college away from home.
  • Increasingly, colleges are spending more on administrative fees.
  • Student amenities can account for as much as $3,000 per student per year.
  • Between 1975 and 2005, the number of administrators had increased by 85% and administrative staffers by over 240%.
  • Between 1993 and 2007, instructional spending per student increased by 39% compared to 61% increase in administrative spending per student.
  • Colleges are increasingly hiring adjunct professors (non-tenure track and paid less than full-time professors) to save money.
  • Between 2003 and 2013, non-tenure track faculty (adjuncts) had increased from 45% to 62% in 4-year schools.
  • In 2018, 73% of all faculty positions were non-tenure track (adjuncts or yearly contracted).
  • In 2016, higher-ed institutions hired 21,511 full-time tenure-track faculty compared to 30,865 non-tenure track faculty.

Statesthatofferinstatetuitiontoundocumentedimmigrants on Education Data Initiative

College Revenues & Operating Costs

The education industry is a multi-billion-dollar market, with cumulative revenues exceeding $415 billion.

  • The average postsecondary institution’s annual revenue is $216,917,478.
  • Most postsecondary revenue (19.3%) comes from tuition and fees.
  • 18.4% of revenue comes from State appropriations.
  • 13.2% comes from sales and services from hospitals.
  • Federal grants and contracts provide 7.6% of institutional revenue.
  • Nonoperating federal grants account for 6.4% of revenue.
  • Annual operating expenses average $212,174,389 or 97.8% of revenue.
  • Instruction accounts for most operating costs (27.8%).
  • Additional major operating costs include hospital services (13.5%), research (9.6%), institutional support (9.1%), and “other expenses and deductions” (9.2%).[1]

For more on education spending, see our report on U.S. Public Education Spending.


  1. NCES, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS)
  2. SchoolMoney.Org, “College Tuition:  Where Does the Money Go?”
  3. U.S. Department of Education’s College Affordability and Transparency Center
  4. Southern Regional Education Board, “Academic Common Market.”
  5. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Undocumented Student Tuition: Overview.”
  6. Parent Toolkit, “Public vs. Private Colleges.”
  7. Federal Student Aid, “Federal Pell Grants.”
  8. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Digest of Education Statistics.
  9. The Future of Statewide College Promise Programs
  10. Tuition and State Appropriations
  11. Federal and State Funding of Higher Education
  12. Many Colleges Miscalculate Off-Campus Housing Costs
  13. Does Federal Student Aid Raise Tuition? New Evidence on For-Profit Colleges
  14. Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators
  15. Federal Student Aid, “FSEOG Grant.”
  16. The Hechinger Report, “Are Too Few College Students Asking for Federal Aid?”
  17. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Measuring the Value of Education
  18. Federal Paycheck Calculator
  19. University of California – Berkeley, Student Budgets (Cost of Attendance)
  20. Stanford University, Community Housing: Housing Types and Costs